**EARTH**orbital Ø: 113,230,656 Mkm (the “PVP” orbit)

Orbital circumference : 355,724,597 km

Diameter at equator: 12,756.3 km

Equatorial circumference: 40,075 km

Orbital speed: 1.601169 km/h or 0.000444 km/s (or 0.00149326% of the Sun’s orbital speed)

Rotational period : 23 hours 56 minutes and 4 seconds (or 23.9345 h)

Rotational speed: 1,676 km/h (i.e. 40,075Km + 38.428 Km / 23.9345 h)

Earth moves by 38.428 km each day and by 14035.84 km each year.

Earth “covers 1 arcsecond” of its orbit every 7.1425 days during which it covers 274.47 km

274.47km is 0.00007716% of 355,724,597km (the circumference of Earth’s PVP orbit)

and in fact, 0.00007716% of 1,296,000 arcseconds (i.e. 360°) is 1 (or more precisely 0.99999)

**MOON** orbital Ø : 763,095 km

Orbital circumference : 2,397,333.6 km

Diameter at equator: 3476.2 km (about 27.25% of Earth’s Ø or 50% of Mars’s Ø or 0.25% of the Sun’s Ø)

Equatorial circumference: 10,920.8 km

Orbital speed: 3656 km/h (i.e. 29.3 X slower than the Sun’s speed of 107.226 km/h)

Closest Perigee on record: 356,375 km (Jan 4, 1912)

Most distant Apogee (predicted on Feb 3, 2125) : 406,720 km (approx 10 X Earth’s circumference)

Average Earth-Moon distance: 381,547.5km

Rotational speed : 16.7 km/h (ca. 10X faster than Earth’s orbital speed of 1.601169 km/h and ca. 100X slower than Earth’s rotational speed of 1676 km/h)

The Earth-Moon distance is also approximately 10X Earth’s circumference

Rotational period (around its axis) : 27.322 days (same as sidereal period of 27.322 days, due to tidal lock)

In 27.322 days, Earth moves by ca. 1050 km (27.322 X 38.428km).

Moon’s True Mean Synodic Period (TMSP) : 29.22 days (12 TMSPs : 350.64 days)

Daily distance covered by the Moon: 87,744 km

Earth orbit Ø versus Moon orbit Ø : 113,230,656 km / 763,095 km = 148.38343X larger

Sun is 392.08X further away than the Moon. As it is, 392.08 / 148.38343 = 2.6423 (i.e. the Earth-Sun orbital size difference)

**SUN** orbital Ø: 299,193,439 km

Orbital circumference: 939,943,910 km (2.6423 X larger than Earth’s PVP orbit)

Diameter at equator: 1,392,000 km

Equatorial circumference: 4,373,093 km

Orbital speed: 107.226 km/h (or 29.785 km/s)

Perigee: 152.1 Mkm

Apogee: 147.1 Mkm (Average Earth-Sun distance : 149.6 Mkm or 1 AU)

Rotational speed: 6670 km/h (near-exactly 1/16th of its own orbital speed – and near-exactly 4X Earth’s rotational speed)

Rotational period (around its axis): ca. 27.3 days (much like the Moon’s 27.322-day rotational / sidereal period)

1 arcsecond of Sun displacement as viewed from Earth = 725.26 km, or 0.00007716% of 939,943,910 (Sun’s orbit circumf.)

**MARS** orbital Ø: 456,800,000 km

Orbital circumference: 1,435,079,524 km (1.52677 X larger than Sun’s orbit or 4.034 X larger than Earth’s PVP orbit)

Diameter at equator: 6792.4 km

Equatorial circumference: 21,339 km

Orbital speed: 1,435,079,524 km / 17532h = 81854.866 (or 22.7km/s)

Perigee: 56.6 Mkm

Apogee: 400.2 Mkm (average Mars-Earth distance: 228.4 Mkm)

Perihelion: 206.6 Mkm

Aphelion: 250.2 Mkm (average Mars-Sun distance: 228.4 Mkm)

Rotational speed: 891.55 km/h (or 1.88X slower than Earth’s rotational speed.

Mars revolves once around the Sun in 686.9 days, or almost exactly 365.25 days X 1.88)

Rotational period (around its axis): 23.9345 hours, the same as Earth’s

PERIHELION CYCLE: current official estimate > 51,000 years (approx 2 X 25344 )

**VENUS** orbital Ø: 216,400,000 Mkm (1.9X larger than Earth’s PVP orbit)

Orbital circumference: 679,840,650 km

Diameter at equator: 12103.6 km

Equatorial circumference: 38024.5 km

Orbital speed: 679,840,650 km / 14025.6 hours (i.e. 584.4 days) = 48471.4 km/h

Perigee: 38.2

Apogee: 261 (average Venus-Earth distance: 149.6 Mkm or 1 AU)

Perihelion: 107.48

Aphelion: 108.94 (average Venus-Sun distance: 108.2 Mkm)

NOTE: 108.2 Mkm + 5 Mkm (Sun’s perigee/apogee difference) = 113.2 Mkm (i.e. Ø of Earth’s PVP orbit)

Rotational speed: 2.711 km/h (ca. 2X slower than Mercury and 6X slower than the Moon)

Rotational period (around its axis): 14025.6 hrs (same as sidereal period, due to tidal lock)

**MERCURY** orbital Ø : 115,818,454 Mkm

Orbital circumference: 363,854,404 km

Diameter at equator: 4879.4 km

Equatorial circumference: 15,329 km

Orbital speed: 363,854,404 km / 2805.12 h (i.e. 116.88 days) = 129,710.8 km/h – or 36.03 km/s

Perigee : 77.3 Mkm

Apogee: 221.9 Mkm (average Mercury-Earth distance: 149.6 Mkm or 1 AU)

Perihelion: 46.0 Mkm

Aphelion: 69.8 Mkm (average Mercury-Sun distance: 57.9 Mkm)

Rotational speed: 5.465 km/h (ca. 2X faster than Venus and 3X slower than the Moon)

Rotation period (around its axis): 2805.12 hours (same as sidereal period, due to tidal lock)

**PHOBOS** orbital Ø: 18,756 km (orbits Mars in 459 minutes – or 7.65h)

Diameter: 22.2 km (27×21.6×18.8) km

Orbit circumference: 58,923.66 km

Orbital speed: 58923.66 / 7.65 hrs = 7702.44 km/h

**DEIMOS** orbital Ø: 46,918 km (orbits Mars in 1818 minutes – or 30.3h)

Diameter: 12.6 km (10×12×16) km

Orbit circumference: 147,397.11 km

Orbital speed: 147,397.11 km / 30.3 hrs = 4864.6 km/h

**JUPITER** orbital Ø: 1,557,140,000 km (13.752 X larger than Earth’s PVP orbit diameter)

Orbital circumference: 4,891,899,584.6 km

Diameter at equator: 142,984 km

Orbital speed: 4,891,899,584.6 km / 105192 h = 46,504.48 km/h

Orbital period: 12 years / 4383 days or 105,192 h

Jupiter’s orbit is 5.204 X larger than the Sun’s orbit.

**SATURN** orbital Ø : 2,853,332,844 km (25.2 X larger than Earth’s PVP orbit diameter)

Orbital circumference: 8,964,009,501 km

Diameter at equator: 120,536 km

Orbital speed: 8,964,009,501 km / 262,980 h = 34,086.27 km/h

Orbital period: 30 years / or 10,957.5 days / or 262,980 h

Saturn’s orbit is 9.536 X larger than the Sun’s orbit.

**URANUS** orbital Ø : 5,744,920,000 km (50.73 X larger than Earth’s PVP orbit diameter)

Orbital circumference: 18,048,198,467.5 km

Diameter at equator: 51,118 km

Orbital speed: 18,048,198,467.5km / 736.344 hrs = 24,510.5 km/h

Orbital period: 84 years / or 30,681 days / or 736,344 h

Uranus’s orbit is 19.2 X larger than the Sun’s orbit.

**NEPTUNE** orbital Ø : 8,990,120,000 km (79.39 X larger than Earth’s PVP orbit diameter)

Orbital circumference: 28,243,294,946.9 km

Diameter at equator: 49.528 km

Orbital speed: 28,243,294,946.9 km / 1.446.390 hrs = 19,526.7 km/h

Orbital period: 165 years / or 60,266.25 days / or 1,446,390 h

Neptune’s orbit is 30 X larger than the Sun’s orbit.

**PLUTO** orbital Ø: 11,812,760,000 km (104.32 X larger than Earth’s PVP orbit diameter)

Orbit circumference: 37,110,880,034.6 km

Diameter at equator: 2374 km

Orbital speed: 37,110,880,034.6 km / 2,173,968 hrs = 17.070.5 km/h

Orbital period: 248 years / or 90,582 days / or 2,173,968 hours

Pluto’s orbit is 39.5 X larger than the Sun’s orbit.

*HyperPhysics Planetary Data*by Carl R. (Rod) Nave (2000) for Department of Physics and Astronomy at Georgia State University