Planetary Data
HyperPhysics

Carl R. (Rod) Nave for Department of Physics and Astronomy at Georgia State University
2000



Planetary Data

Quantity
Mercury
Venus
Earth
Mars
Jupiter
Saturn
Uranus
Neptune
Pluto
Mean distance from sun
(106 km)
57.9
108.2
149.6
227.9
778.6
1,433.5
2,872.5
4,495.1
5,906.4
Mean distance from sun
AU
0.387
0.723
1.0
1.523
5.205
9.582
19.20
30.05
39.48
Period of revolution, years
0.241
0.615
1.00
1.88
11.86
29.42
83.75
163.72
247.93
Orbital speed, km/s
47.4
35.0
29.8
24.1
13.1
9.7
6.81
5.43
4.74
Inclination of axis to orbit
0.01
177.4
23.4
25.2
3.1
26.7
97.8
28.3
122.5
Inclination of orbit to earth's orbit
7
3.39
0
1.85
1.30
2.49
0.77
1.77
17.2
Eccentricity of orbit
0.206
0.0068
0.0167
0.0934
0.0485
0.0556
0.046
0.011
0.244
Equatorial diameter, km
4,879
12,104
12,756
6,792
142,984
120,536
51,118
49,528
2370
Mass(earth=1)
0.0553
0.816
1.000
0.108
318
95.1
14.5
17.1
0.00245
Density (water = 1)
5.427
5.243
5.514
3.933
1.326
0.687
1.271
1.638
2.095
Escape velocity, equator, km/s
4.3
10.4
11.2
5.0
59.5
35.5
21.3
23.5
1.3
Satellites
0
0
1
2
67
62
27
14
5
High/Low temperatures, °C
350
480
58
27
...
...
...
...
-234
-170
-33
-88
-123
...
...
...
...
-390
Atmosphere
none
CO2
N2,O2
CO2
H2,He
H2,He
H2,He
H2,He
none



Mercury Data

Mean distance from Sun:
0.387 AU = 5.79x107 km
Maximum distance from Sun:
0.467 AU=6.98x107 km
Minimum distance from Sun:
0.307 AU=4.60x107
Mean orbital velocity:
47.4 km/s
Siderial period:
87.969 days
Rotation period:
58.646 days
Inclination of equator to orbit:
Inclination of orbit to ecliptic:
7°00'16"
Orbital eccentricity:
0.206
Diameter(equatorial):
4878 km
Diameter (Earth = 1):
0.382
Apparent diameter from Earth:Max:
12.9"
Apparent diameter from Earth:Min:
4.5"
Mass:
3.3x1023 kg
Mass(Earth=1):
0.055
Mean density
5427 kg/m3
Surface gravity (Earth = 1)
0.38
Escape velocity
4.3 km/s
Oblateness
0
Mean surface temperature:day
350°C=662°F=623K
Mean surface temperature:night
-170°C=-274°F=103K
Albedo
0.1
Brightest magnitude
-1.9
Mean diameter of Sun from Mercury
1°22'40"
Mercury
Venus
Earth
Mars
Jupiter
Saturn
Uranus
Neptune
Pluto
Comparison Table

Data from Kaufmann

Index

Solar System Illustration

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Venus Data

Mean distance from Sun:
0.723 AU = 1.082x108 km
Maximum distance from Sun:
0.728 AU=1.089x108 km
Minimum distance from Sun:
0.718 AU=1.075x108 km
Mean orbital velocity:
35.0 km/s
Siderial period:
224.70 days
Rotation period:
243.01 days
Retrograde
Inclination of equator to orbit:
177.4°
Inclination of orbit to ecliptic:
3°23'40"
Orbital eccentricity:
0.007
Diameter(equatorial):
12,104 km
Diameter (Earth = 1):
0.949
Apparent diameter from Earth:Max:
65.2"
Apparent diameter from Earth:Min:
9.5"
Mass:
4.87x1024 kg
Mass(Earth=1):
0.8150
Mean density
5240 kg/m3
Surface gravity (Earth = 1)
0.903
Escape velocity
10.4 km/s
Oblateness
0
Mean surface temperature
480°C=900°F=750K
Albedo
0.65
Brightest magnitude
-4.4
Mean diameter of Sun from Venus
44'15"
Mercury
Venus
Earth
Mars
Jupiter
Saturn
Uranus
Neptune
Pluto
Comparison Table

Data from Kaufmann

Index

Solar System Illustration

Solar System Concepts
 
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Earth Data

Mean distance from Sun:
1.000 AU = 1.496x108 km
Maximum distance from Sun:
1.017 AU=1.521x108 km
Minimum distance from Sun:
0.983 AU=1.471x108 km
Mean orbital velocity:
29.8 km/s
Siderial period:
365.256 days
Rotation period:
23.9345 hours
Inclination of equator to orbit:
23° 27'
Inclination of orbit to ecliptic:
Orbital eccentricity:
0.0167
Diameter(equatorial):
12,756 km
Mass:
5.976x1024 kg
Mean density
5500 kg/m3
Escape velocity
11.2 km/s
Oblateness
0.0034
Mean surface temperature
20°C=68°F=293K
Surface temperature:max
60°C=140°F=333K
Surface temperature:min
-90°C=-130°F=183K
Albedo*
0.39
Brightest magnitude
-1.9
Mean diameter of Sun from Earth
0°32'
Mercury
Venus
Earth
Mars
Jupiter
Saturn
Uranus
Neptune
Pluto
Comparison Table

Data from Kaufmann

*Albedo is the fraction of light reflected from an object.

Additional data:
Acceleration of gravity on surface of earth 9.8 m/s2
Range on earth's surface about 9.77 to 9.83 m/s2
Air Density, standard1.29 kg/m3
Average molecular mass .0289 kg/mole
At STP a mole of air occupies 22.4 liters = .0224 m3
One cubic meter of air contains 44.64 moles

Composition of dry air
Component Percentage Partial pressure(mmHg)
Nitrogen
78.08
593.4
Oxygen
20.95
159.2
Argon
0.93
7.1
Carbon dioxide
.03
0.2
Elements in Earth's crust
Magnetic field
Index

Solar System Illustration

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Mars Data

Mean distance from Sun:
1.524 AU = 2.279x108 km
Maximum distance from Sun:
1.666 AU=2.491x108 km
Minimum distance from Sun:
1.382 AU=2.067x108 km
Mean orbital velocity:
24.1 km/s
Siderial period:
686.98 days
1.88 yrs
Rotation period:
24hr 37m 23s
Inclination of equator to orbit:
25° 11'
Inclination of orbit to ecliptic:
1°50'59"
Orbital eccentricity:
0.093
Diameter(equatorial):
6794 km
Diameter (Earth = 1):
0.532
Apparent diameter from Earth:Max:
25.7"
Apparent diameter from Earth:Min:
3.5"
Mass:
6.42x1023 kg
Mass(Earth=1):
0.107
Mean density
3940 kg/m3
Surface gravity (Earth = 1)
0.380
Escape velocity
5.0 km/s
Oblateness
0.006
Surface temperature:max
20°C=68°F=293K
Surface temperature:min
-140°C=-220°F=133K
Albedo
0.15
Brightest magnitude
-2.0
Mean diameter of Sun from Mars
21'
Mercury
Venus
Earth
Mars
Jupiter
Saturn
Uranus
Neptune
Pluto
Comparison Table

Data from Kaufmann

Index

Solar System Illustration

Solar System Concepts
 
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Jupiter Data

Mean distance from Sun:
5.203 AU = 7.786x108 km
Maximum distance from Sun:
5.455 AU=8.157x108 km
Minimum distance from Sun:
4.951 AU=7.409x108 km
Mean orbital velocity:
13.1 km/s
Siderial period:
11.86 yr
Rotation period:
9hr 50m 30s
equatorial
Inclination of equator to orbit:
3° 04'
Inclination of orbit to ecliptic:
1°18'
Orbital eccentricity:
0.048
Diameter(equatorial):
142,984 km
133,500 km polar
Diameter (Earth = 1):
11.19
10.47 polar
Apparent diameter from Earth:Max:
50.1"
Apparent diameter from Earth:Min:
30.4"
Mass:
1.90x1027 kg
Mass(Earth=1):
317.8
Mean density
1326 kg/m3
Surface gravity (Earth = 1)
2.53
Escape velocity
59.5 km/s
Oblateness
0.065
Mean surface temperature:cloudtops
-110°C=-166°F=163K
Albedo
0.52
Brightest magnitude
-2.7
Mean diameter of Sun from Jupiter
6'09"
Mercury
Venus
Earth
Mars
Jupiter
Saturn
Uranus
Neptune
Pluto
Comparison Table

Data from Kaufmann

Index

Solar System Illustration

Solar System Concepts
 
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Saturn Data

Mean distance from Sun:
9.582 AU = 1.433x109 km
Maximum distance from Sun:
10.044 AU=1.503x109 km
Minimum distance from Sun:
9.014 AU=1.348x109 km
Mean orbital velocity:
9.6 km/s
Siderial period:
29.41 years
Rotation period:
10 h 13m 59s
10h 39m 25s internal
Inclination of equator to orbit:
27°
Inclination of orbit to ecliptic:
2°29'
Orbital eccentricity:
0.054
Diameter(equatorial):
120,536 km
107,000 polar
Diameter (Earth = 1):
9.26
8.27 polar
Apparent diameter from Earth:Max:
20.9"
Apparent diameter from Earth:Min:
15"
Mass:
5.69x1026 kg
Mass(Earth=1):
95.1
Mean density
687 kg/m3
Surface gravity (Earth = 1)
1.07
Escape velocity
35.5 km/s
Oblateness
0.108
Mean surface temperature:cloudtops
-180°C=-292°F=93K
Albedo
0.76
Brightest magnitude
-0.3
Mean diameter of Sun from Saturn
3'22"
Mercury
Venus
Earth
Mars
Jupiter
Saturn
Uranus
Neptune
Pluto
Comparison Table

Data from Kaufmann

Index

Solar System Illustration

Solar System Concepts
 
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Uranus Data

Mean distance from Sun:
19.20 AU = 2.873x109 km
Maximum distance from Sun:
20.07 AU=3.003x109 km
Minimum distance from Sun:
18.31 AU=2.739x109 km
Mean orbital velocity:
6.8 km/s
Siderial period:
84.04 years
Rotation period:
17.2 hours
Inclination of equator to orbit:
97.9°
Inclination of orbit to ecliptic:
0.77°
Orbital eccentricity:
0.046
Diameter(equatorial):
51,118 km
Diameter (Earth = 1):
4.01
Apparent diameter from Earth:Max:
3.7"
Apparent diameter from Earth:Min:
3.1"
Mass:
8.68x1025 kg
Mass(Earth=1):
14.5
Mean density
1271 kg/m3
Surface gravity (Earth = 1)
0.92
Escape velocity
21.3 km/s
Oblateness
0.03
Mean surface temperature:cloudtops
-216°C=-357°F=57K
Albedo
0.51
Brightest magnitude
+5.6
Mean diameter of Sun from Uranus
1'41"
Mercury
Venus
Earth
Mars
Jupiter
Saturn
Uranus
Neptune
Pluto
Comparison Table

Data from Kaufmann

Index

Solar System Illustration

Solar System Concepts
 
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Neptune Data

Mean distance from Sun:
30.05 AU = 4.495x109 km
Maximum distance from Sun:
30.36 AU=4.546x109 km
Minimum distance from Sun:
29.76 AU=4.456x109 km
Mean orbital velocity:
5.4 km/s
Siderial period:
163.72 years
Rotation period:
16.11 hours
Inclination of equator to orbit:
29.6°
Inclination of orbit to ecliptic:
1.77°
Orbital eccentricity:
0.01
Diameter(equatorial):
49,528 km
Diameter (Earth = 1):
3.88
Apparent diameter from Earth:Max:
2.2"
Apparent diameter from Earth:Min:
2.0"
Mass:
1.03x1026 kg
Mass(Earth=1):
17.1
Mean density
1638 kg/m3
Surface gravity (Earth = 1)
1.12
Escape velocity
23.5 km/s
Oblateness
0.026
Mean surface temperature:cloudtops
-216°C=-357°F=57K
Albedo
0.35
Brightest magnitude
+7.7
Mean diameter of Sun from Neptune
1'04"
Mercury
Venus
Earth
Mars
Jupiter
Saturn
Uranus
Neptune
Pluto
Comparison Table

Data from Kaufmann

Index

Solar System Illustration

Solar System Concepts
 
HyperPhysics********** Astrophysics R Nave
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Pluto Data

Mean distance from Sun:
39.48 AU = 5.906x109 km
Maximum distance from Sun:
49.33 AU=7.380x109 km
Minimum distance from Sun:
29.73 AU=4.447x109 km
Mean orbital velocity:
4.74 km/s
Siderial period:
247.93 years
Rotation period:
6.3874 days
Inclination of equator to orbit:
122°
Inclination of orbit to ecliptic:
17.1°
Orbital eccentricity:
0.248
Diameter(equatorial):
2370 km
Diameter (Earth = 1):
0.18
Apparent diameter from Earth:
0.1"
Mass:
1.46x1022 kg
Mass(Earth=1):
0.00245
Mean density
2095 kg/m3
Surface gravity (Earth = 1)
0.06
Escape velocity
1.3 km/s
Mean surface temperature:
-223°C=-369°F=50K
Albedo
0.4
Brightest magnitude
+15
Mean diameter of Sun from Pluto
50"
Mercury
Venus
Earth
Mars
Jupiter
Saturn
Uranus
Neptune
Pluto
Comparison Table

Data from Kaufmann

Index

Solar System Illustration

Solar System Concepts
 
HyperPhysics********** Astrophysics R Nave
Go Back



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